Home Based Business Ideas For Everyday Moms

If you have recently had a baby, have children at home or simply in between jobs, you may have thought about starting a home based job. Even if you have a stable career in the workforce, many moms fantasise about the idea of being able to work from home.Reasons for wanting to start a home business for moms vary considerably, from wanting to be able to raise their own young children before they start school, to wanting to earn a passive income to help pay for some expenses or even because they just want to have flexible hours and be their own boss.All of the above reasons are common and very understandable. Where moms feel unsure about starting a home based business is finding an idea that agrees with them, their knowledge, market and resources available.Some moms feel that they are just an everyday mom that cannot come up with an idea that is achievable. This attitude must stop right here.I can tell you now, there is a home business idea very achievable for all people, even the most everyday mom! I believe that if you have some knowledge about something (or anything in particular) and own a computer with internet access, you can have a home business up and running within a matter of days.Put simply, billions of people search for information and content through search engines on the internet every single day. There are lots of different ways you can use information or knowledge you possess to create a income online. People will pay money online to acquire information you can provide.Creating a simple content rich website on a particular topic (niche) which also sells ebooks, has affiliate links and different advertising can create an ongoing, passive stream of income to your designated account, twenty four hours a day, seven days a week.For example, if you are a great babysitter and obviously know a lot about children, you could create a website which provides customers and visitors with lots of interesting and fun activities for toddlers. Write an eBook to sell, or purchase one with resell rights and keep one hundred percent of the profits.Your babysitting website could target an audience of parents and fellow babysitters looking for child care ideas and tips.You simply need to think about your interests and skills (in any area at all, be it horse riding, craft, cooking, massaging or juggling) and share your expertise online.You may be surprised just how many people are looking for what you can offer.There are lots of online internet marketing strategies available to help you get a home business idea started online.If you are a mom who has an interest in the baby and child niche, visit the link below which provides lots of free information and resources to get your business online the easiest and most effective way.

Advice for Starting a Home Based Business

The opportunity to start your very own home based business is on the rise around the world. Many people are realizing the huge benefits of leaving their regular jobs and starting their own business from home. Ordinary people are making extraordinary money working from home on the Internet.If you would like to join this rapidly growing industry, you should consider a few things before getting started. First, consider how much money you are willing to invest into your business. In other words, you must have a business plan and a budget. Next, decide what tools and resources you will need. You maybe surprised to learn that you already have many of the necessary tools and resources in your home. Finally, decide what area or niche you want to target. For example, make a list of all the things you enjoy doing and build your business around the one topic you love the most.These are just a few of the things you should consider before taking the leap into the home business industry. Now, let us discuss each of these areas in a little more detail. When starting a home business, you must ensure that you have a solid business plan with the necessary budget to get your business off the ground.It is important that you have the funds available to run your new home based business without tapping into your personal savings. The key is to have at least three months of savings reserved for your personal needs. Having the necessary cash on hand will give your business time to start generating income for you.Understanding the basic tools and resources needed for your business is also very important. Necessities such as domain names, web hosting and advertising among many others are vital to the success of your business. A large number of businesses fail within the first year due to a lack of planning, funding and budgeting.Using tools and resources you already have on hand is a great way to save money as well. Most people already have a computer with Internet connection and a phone line available for use. These tools will allow you to start researching, planning and building your business straight away.After getting your budget and resources together, the next area you should focus on is finding a niche that you enjoy. Enjoying your work will allow you to put in the type of effort and commitment it takes to be successful. The goal is to choose a home business niche or idea that you truly enjoy. This will keep you motivated, happy and willing to work when you sit down at your computer. Working from home can be boring, lonely and tiring at times, so it is important to enjoy what you do for the long haul.Once you are satisfied with your business plan, you will be able to make your best home based business choice. Taking the time to plan will help you get your business off to a great start while giving you every opportunity to succeed.

Best Home Based Businesses – How to Pick a Winner

The best home based businesses are now and again categorized by some folks as the kinds with the most lucrative pay out structure. Many others might explain to you that the best home businesses are the types which have the most excellent products. While still other people will point to a company’s proven numerous years of experience in addition to nonstop expansion as the standard of the best home businesses.It is pretty important to be aware that all these factors do add to the success of a home based business. Careless business practices, dishonest pay structures and poor products or services is a definite road to disappointment for virtually every home business or organization. It is additionally crucial to understand when you are hunting for the “best” in terms of home businesses, you may want to look a little deeper than radiant testimonials and corporate pie charts.Whilst looking for the “best” home business which might be a match for you, you will also want to ask yourself this particular question…”Just how should I build my business”? What happens right here is that a lot of people while hunting for the best home business, end up making the identical miscalculation as numerous other folks have done in the past. Investing the majority of their efforts researching the “what” of a business instead of the “how” of a business.Allow me to clarify. The “what” of a home business that is actually shown and marketed to probable opportunity seekers is the “remarkable products and services” and the “awesome compensation plan” and of course the “amazing track record” of the company and the management team. What, in this picture, is going to earn income for you? Please don’t say, “these products will sell themselves”. Despite the fact that truly awesome products and services will probably account for a number of sales, you are not going to have the ability to develop a substantial business upon this.At this time we need to have a look at one of the most under appreciated facets of selecting the “best” home business…the “how”. Just how do you propose to sell your awesome products and services so you can capitalize on that unbelievable pay structure and build up the company’s already remarkable track record? It is at this point where you need to realize that you will require a marketing and advertising system in place to promote your product and opportunity.An effective method for online marketing and advertising will produce revenue…end of story. The components of a fundamental online marketing system may incorporate, at the very least, a capture page, sales page, and an effective email series of messages. Applications such as these will locate and inform those that are currently looking for your offer.There are also effectual traditional strategies that a first-class internet marketing system will certainly make use of. The elements of an offline marketing and advertising system might include newspaper ads, post card mailings, letter mailings and 800 numbers. Again these types of techniques will come across, instruct and draw the folks who are interested in your offer which in turn will result in a number of sales.Another key area that needs to be considered is training and support. When considering the “how” of home business, there most definitely needs to be the presence of quality training, instruction and support. Most of the “training” that happens in the home business industry nowadays is you having to make a list and go tell everybody you know how “breathtaking” this product and opportunity are, or you are given a website that you are expected to “drive traffic” to.If you are accurately taught the “how” to marketing and building your home business then you can choose just about any “what” (home business) that you want. Sure, you must consider the company, products and track record of any opportunity that you consider. But in terms of which one is “best” would have to be the home business in which there is an proven marketing system that will help you be successful.Obviously some of the best home based businesses are the ones that have an effective marketing system already in place to help new people coming on board. Although automation in these systems is significant there is still the aspect of the human touch of a good marketing system. People don’t partner with companies, products or systems…they partner with people, especially people who care about the success of others.

Home Based Business Tips for Success – In the Beginning

When I decided to get started on my home based career I jumped into my home based business blind and with both feet. Feeling invincible I pulled out my credit card and began spending money on whatever sounded good and guess what? They all sounded good! Every one of those “push button, you’re gonna make a fortune” programs or software that do not tell you everything before you spend your hard earned money on, all sounded good. These will eventually beat you down as they did me.OK. $37, $47 or even $99 does not seem like a lot when you’re looking at thousands and thousands of dollars a month in returns, right? Let me assure you that it doesn’t end there. If you’re not being tempted into spending more money on upsales I’m pretty sure you will get completely overwhelmed and let me tell you why. You are not ready for these type of systems yet! You need an online marketing plan and goals in place first followed by a rock solid system that teaches you the how’s, where’s and when’s. It took me a year of no direction, thousands of dollars and more frustrated moments than I care to remember.First of all, if you believe that you will make it rich very quickly in this home based business industry; give up now and save your money. Any business takes time and effort. Actually, if you have never owned your own business it takes more than you realize. As I said before, goals and planning a home based business is crucial to your online success and then succeed you can.My turning point happened after I stumbled upon a good program (which is pretty rare). This program with it’s easy to follow tutorial videos set me on the right path to online success in my home based business. I went from there to create my goals and plans and I’m glad I did as these are now the cornerstones of my home based business.Enough about me and on to you, you may be thinking to yourself, “wow, where do I start with a plan”. With a little guidance and a few answered questions you will be on your way. Let’s start with some simple questions:1. Do you have any skills?2. What are your interests?3. What do you enjoy doing?The reason for these questions are to start you off in the right area for your future home based business. For example, let’s say you are an ex dancer, ex-soldier or even a duct tape artist, you have skills and those skills can be profited from. I want you to think about this. I used to believe I knew what would sell. Everyone must like what I like right? Wrong. After doing some research I was godsmacked at what people where buying. The saying had never been more correct “one man’s trash is another man’s treasure.” Keep that in mind when you start doubting your product or services.Enjoying and having an interest in your home based business is a must! I have worked with aspiring entrepreneurs in the past that looked at where they thought the most money was and after getting bored and starting from scratch with their education, they bombed. So, the point to this is that having previous knowledge, having an interest and enjoying your daily work is imperative because believe me when I say that you have a huge learning curve ahead of you.When I first looked at my plan for success I began getting very detailed which was a mistake. Everything you do right now will change. So, when writing your goals start at say, 6 months and work your way back to weekly goals, be very realistic and keep it brief. I guarantee that if you start getting detailed and waste a bunch of time you will look back and want to kick yourself as your goals will change with experience and knowledge. The same goes for the plan. However, you will need to follow your initial plan.Ask yourself, “Do I really want to pursue this interest? Do I enjoy this field and do I see myself as being a future expert?” If the answer is yes, get started in Word or Openoffice.org writing anything and everything you can about what you know, then start looking at your competitions websites and blogs, read their content, find out how knowledgeable they are and be sure to write whatever you wrote in Google, Bing, yahoo etc… to find your competition and finally DO NOT copy and paste your competitions content into yours. I will tell you why in the next article.In the next article I will talk to you about getting your message out there, how the content should be written and where to place that content for free for maximum exposure.I am currently working on the Home Based Business, Tips for Success II and will be available to you very soon.

Small Business Marketing Ideas: Discover Your Niche

Small Business Survival: Wage War on the Competition with New Marketing IdeasIn these difficult economic times, small businesses are closing their doors everyday. But there are a wealth of low-cost or free marketing possibilities still available to aid small business owners.The low-price offers of big retailers like Target and Walmart on items from clothing to electronics in an effort to dominate the market has forced countless small local retailers to shut down. When small businesses lose the competitive battle against these massive companies, hard-working entrepreneurs lose their shirts and irreplaceable establishments are lost by local communities. I live in a remote community of 10,000 people and I have certainly experienced this. It has been a terrible blow to watch people I know suffer. Our community has lost many businesses near-and-dear to our hearts and we are left with few shopping options.So, how is a small business to make its mark n these difficult times?Business owners who run a physical business location are fighting an uphill battle, particularly if they offer anything which is sold by corporate giants. To carve out their own niche in the marketplace, they need to be well-versed in their product or service, endeavor to be unique in their approach while delivering the finest customer service to attract and retain customers. Certainly a massive undertaking, but one that will pay off.Determine what your large competitors don’t offer: that’s where you, as the small business entrepreneur, can find your niche, or your targeted segment of the marketplace.1. It is clear when visiting chain stores that they do not place value on customer service.
2. Every location looks the same.
3. If they don’t carry what you want, there is nothing they can or will do to help you.Find a better way to serve the market in at least 2 and possibly 3 of these ares.1. Provide the FINEST service possible to your customers. Always keep an employee available in the store or at the register to answer questions. Hire friendly and courteous people to answer incoming calls. Try your best to learn the names of your frequent customers and address them by their name. That’s a great way to endear yourself and your business to your customers and will encourage shopper loyalty!2. Make your location a destination-a pleasant place to visit. Paint a mural inside. Provide free water and cups. If you are in the food business, hand out samples. Isn’t it fun to visit Trader Joes to taste the new food they are sampling each day? Setup a comfortable sitting area for people to relax who have come along with their friends to the store. Set aside a little area of the sales floor for a kids corner with toys and possibly a TV or DVD playing. If your customers’ children are being entertained, they will spend more time at the store and visit your business more often. I personally have chosen to shop at a specific store because my children enjoyed coming and I could look forward to a half hour of uninterrupted alone time to concentrate on what I wanted to buy!3. You are hopefully in the business you are in because you are excited about your product or service and interested in helping others learn more about it. Make yourself available to your customers. Give them tips and suggestions. Display signs that say “if you can’t find what you need, let us know and we’ll order it for you.” Now there is something Walmart and Target can’t provide. A personal touch.How Google & The Web Can Expand Your Reach1. Google is pulling out all the stops to entice small local establishments to develop an internet presence. Sign up to be listed on the Google Local service. If you serve a very specific market niche, your website can jump to the top of the search page for Your Town and your exact product or service. Just this easy-to-execute, low-cost marketing strategy can attract plenty of new shoppers.2. For a minimal cost, get listed on local directories and your city’s Chamber of Commerce website.3. Try getting connected to Angie’s List.4. Make sure your business is listed on Yelp with stellar reviews! Yelp has a great reputation among consumers and is a trusted source for finding local business options. Place a link to your website on Yelp and provide directions so those searching on Yelp can find your location. Ask your loyal customers to write a glowing review for your business. You can even create a promotion or coupon that you email to customers when they write a Yelp review for you.5. Setting up a website and keeping it updated is not hard to do or cost-prohibitive. These days, a professional-looking WordPress page can be created in just a few hours. The only expenses include monthly hosting fees and purchasing a domain name. You can use GoDaddy or NameCheap for these services.6. Once you have your domain and site setup, another way to generate income is through affiliate marketing and adding Google AdWords to your site.7. Your company can build an email list by placing an opt-in box on your site. Use the email list to send promotions, special offers and coupons to your customers. This will promote good will and increase customer loyalty.8. Get online visitors, or traffic. To establish a stronghold on the top of the search engines, you need to get a high-ranking and then stay highly ranked so online surfers will come across your website when searching for your particular niche. Some of the factors for staying at the top of Google and other search engines include: the online age of the site, the total backlinks to your site, the price and relevance of your offerings and how often you update the site’s content.

Forgotten Genius – Nikola Tesla

With all due respect for Thomas A. Edison, Nikola Tesla was an equal, if not greater, American inventor. Edison is highly lauded. Tesla is nearly forgotten.

Broadly speaking, Edison could be described as an innovator. He improved on existing technology. He did not invent the incandescent light bulb, for example.

That was patented and demonstrated publicly by Joseph Swam of Britain in 1878 — a year before Edison. Later, Swam and Edison formed a brief partnership and Edison bought him out.

Tesla, a native of Serbia, also began as an innovator. He wanted to be an electrical engineer. At that time, “direct current” electricity was produced by chemical batteries charged by a steam-driven generator.

Direct current is affected by resistance in the wire conducting it. Within a mile or so, electricity is used up in the form of heat. At the University of Prague, Tesla was challenged to solve the distribution problem.

Tesla had a phenomenal memory. He memorized the complete works of Goethe and Voltaire. While strolling in a park, reciting poetry about the sun, Tesla suddenly perceived the direct-current solution.

An electric current that alternated from negative to positive could be sent in separate wires. At the receiving end, the two currents would be “induced” to flow to separate magnets — one stationary, the other rotating like the sun.

Tesla patented his idea. “Alternating current” and “induction motors” is the principal system we use today for our homes and factories.

Upon graduation in 1882, Tesla worked for the Continental Edison Company in Paris. He came to the United States a year later to work directly with Edison. Upon arrival he had four cents in his pocket and a sheaf of his poems.

Edison held several patents on direct current improvements, which he leased to General Electric. His installation of a complete direct- current lighting systems at lower New York City was widely hailed.

Inevitably the two men quarreled over the merits of their two systems. Tesla quit, opened his own laboratory and became a naturalized citizen in 1891. He sold his alternating current patents to George Westinghouse. A battle of titans ensued.

Edison tried to convince the public that the low-voltage Edison-General Electric system could be handled with complete safety, while the Tesla-Westinghouse high-voltage system was dangerous.

Someone in the Edison camp toured state fairs mildly shocking stray cats and dogs with direct current – then killing them with alternating current. The pitch was that the Tesla/Westinghouse high-voltage alternating current was fatal if touched accidentally.

First Human Electrocution

During this public relations war, the state of New York bungled several gruesome hangings. Condemned prisoners sometimes were slowly strangled or decapitated.

A Dr. Brown, dentist and spokesman for the Medico-Legal Society of New York, searched for a “more humane and scientific way” of applying capital punishment.

He convinced state authorities that alternating-current electricity was the quickest and surest.

The warden of the Albany Penitentiary asked Westinghouse to install an AC generator with which to execute an axe murder named William Kemmler.

Both Westinghouse and Tesla were strenuously opposed to capital punishment and refused.

Through subterfuge, someone – Historian Theo Benson says it was Edison – obtained a Tesla generator for the world’s first human execution by electricity.

The voltage was too low. Kemmler was literally cooked after repeated jolts of current. The disgusted Westinghouse later said, “They’d have done better with an axe.”

For years thereafter, people killed accidentally by electrical mishaps were said to have been “Westinghoused.”

Tesla System Wins

Westinghouse and Tesla forged ahead of General Electric and Edison by winning a contract to illuminate the 1893 Chicago Exposition with 200,000 light bulbs. It was a sensation.

Three years later they installed the first hydroelectric alternating – current system at Niagara Falls for the city of Buffalo. Edison and General Electric thereafter manufactured light bulbs and other appliances compatible with alternating current.

With royalties pouring in, Tesla could concentrate on the nature of electricity and its potential.

His approach of exploring the nature of energy was science – as contrasted to inventing things for specific purposes. During the next few years, he filed 830 patents.

Tesla’s watershed invention was a particular coil of wire that ushered in hundreds of uses we take for granted today. They were however, too futuristic for the time.

He achieved illumination with “filamentless” bulbs filled with various gases. Today we recognize these as fluorescent lights and neon advertising letters.

He experimented with “shadowgraphs” of human bones through clothing years before Roentgen published his work.

His “Tesla coil” created high-voltage “energy waves” by which he projected radio signals to “telautomaton” model ships. They maneuvered in response to levers on a control box.

Tesla said he could replace the lever box with a telephone to transmit voices, music – and, ultimately, images. No commercial backer was interested because there were no instruments to receive ethereal waves.

This was two years before Marconi succeeded in broadcasting a single telegraph click. After a legal suit, Tesla’s primacy was upheld.

The Navy was mildly interested in a tiny submarine without a crew that could be controlled by Tesla’s waves. However, the admirals did not foresee the smart bombs and torpedoes of today.

The ‘high-power oscillator” – that Tesla invented to control ships at sea — is the power supply for our television cathode-ray picture tube.
Man-made Lightning

The U.S. War Department in 1893 asked Tesla to expand his wireless communications systems. The request came at an awkward time. Tesla’s patents expired. His New York laboratory and papers had burned.

The manager of the Colorado Springs municipal lighting system offered Tesla free electricity for his project. He moved to Colorado Springs and built an experimental radio station 10 miles out of town.

He determined that the Earth is a huge magnet with energy flowing between positive and negative poles. Also, he computed the frequency necessary to project an electrical spurt completely through the planet and recapture the spurt when it bounced back.

It was his intent – by a huge Tesla coil — to add additional spurts to successive bounces. When a massive voltage had been built up, he would release it from a tall antenna to zoom around the world.

When all was ready, Tesla, wearing shoes with two-inch-thick rubber soles for insulation, threw the switch for one second “to see what it would do.” The plateau was carpeted momentarily with blue St Elmo Fire — but no explosion.

Tesla threw the switch again and stepped outside to measure the expected lightning bolt. Amidst deafening thunder, a bolt leaped from the antenna and lengthened as earth charges accumulated.

Folks in town were alarmed. Sparks crackled from fire hydrants. People in leather shoes, or barefoot, skipped from heat.

At 130 feet, the bolt collapsed. All was silent.

Tesla ran to the phone and called the Colorado Springs municipal electric plant. “You have ruined my experiment?”

“To Hell with you,” was the reply. “You have burned out our generators.” They sent him a bill for damages and electricity. .

Nevertheless, Tesla had learned a great deal about earth resonance and aerial propagation of radio waves. He became obsessed with the possibility of capturing earth energy and broadcasting it free to the whole world.
Search For Free Energy

Tesla returned to New York City to build a radio transmitter capable of reaching Europe. He obtained backing from J.P. Morgan, a prominent financier of promising projects.

A huge Tesla coil and 85-foot broadcasting tower was built at Wardenclyffe on Long Island. It soon became apparent to Morgan that Tesla was more interested in broadcasting free energy than commercial radio programs.

Morgan wanted to know, “Where will you put the meter?” He refused to advance any more money. Work stopped. The huge transmitting tower fell into disrepair and was finally demolished as a hazard.

The laboratory and land was acquired by the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in payment for a $20,000 room bill.

In the ensuing years Tesla experimented with a “particle beam accelerator” that could destroy invading airplanes. The newspapers dubbed it a “death ray.” Today we call it microwaves for kitchen ovens.

He invented a small “energy turbine” consisting of closely-spaced disks on an axle that spins on any gas or liquid containing energy – gasoline, hydrogen, propane, or methane – without burning the fuel.

Unfortunately the disks warp or melt from the molecular action of energy atoms. Energy and pollution problems would be solved if we could invent a suitable disk material.

Tesla postulated that sunlight could be converted directly into electricity (solar panels), energy could be extracted from atoms (bombs), hundreds of messages could be transmitted simultaneously over one circuit (fiber glass cable), drone planes could be powered by electricity (NASA has one powered by solar cells circling indefinitely at a high altitude).

During the First World War he proposed bouncing radio waves off enemy airplanes to learn of their approach. The War Department ignored his proposal. It wasn’t until World War II that RADAR was introduced.

He detected radio waves from outer space and thought they might be signals from aliens. We now know that radio waves from space are static left over from creation of the universe.

Modern Financial Management Theories & Small Businesses

The following are some examples of modern financial management theories formulated on principles considered as ‘a set of fundamental tenets that form the basis for financial theory and decision-making in finance’ (Emery et al.1991). An attempt would be made to relate the principles behind these concepts to small businesses’ financial management.

Agency Theory
Agency theory deals with the people who own a business enterprise and all others who have interests in it, for example managers, banks, creditors, family members, and employees. The agency theory postulates that the day to day running of a business enterprise is carried out by managers as agents who have been engaged by the owners of the business as principals who are also known as shareholders. The theory is on the notion of the principle of ‘two-sided transactions’ which holds that any financial transactions involve two parties, both acting in their own best interests, but with different expectations.

Problems usually identified with agency theory may include:

i. Information asymmetry- a situation in which agents have information on the financial circumstances and prospects of the enterprise that is not known to principals (Emery et al.1991). For example ‘The Business Roundtable’ emphasised that in planning communications with shareholders and investors, companies should consider never misleading or misinforming stockholders about the corporation’s operations or financial condition. In spite of this principle, there was lack of transparency from Enron’s management leading to its collapse;

ii. Moral hazard-a situation in which agents deliberately take advantage of information asymmetry to redistribute wealth to themselves in an unseen manner which is ultimately to the detriment of principals. A case in point is the failure of the Board of directors of Enron’s compensation committee to ask any question about the award of salaries, perks, annuities, life insurance and rewards to the executive members at a critical point in the life of Enron; with one executive on record to have received a share of ownership of a corporate jet as a reward and also a loan of $77m to the CEO even though the Sarbanes-Oxley Act in the US bans loans by companies to their executives; and

iii. Adverse selection-this concerns a situation in which agents misrepresent the skills or abilities they bring to an enterprise. As a result of that the principal’s wealth is not maximised (Emery et al.1991).

In response to the inherent risk posed by agents’ quest to make the most of their interests to the disadvantage of principals (i.e. all stakeholders), each stakeholder tries to increase the reward expected in return for participation in the enterprise. Creditors may increase the interest rates they get from the enterprise. Other responses are monitoring and bonding to improve principal’s access to reliable information and devising means to find a common ground for agents and principals respectively.

Emanating from the risks faced in agency theory, researchers on small business financial management contend that in many small enterprises the agency relationship between owners and managers may be absent because the owners are also managers; and that the predominantly nature of SMEs make the usual solutions to agency problems such as monitoring and bonding costly thereby increasing the cost of transactions between various stakeholders (Emery et al.1991).

Nevertheless, the theory provides useful knowledge into many matters in SMEs financial management and shows considerable avenues as to how SMEs financial management should be practiced and perceived. It also enables academic and practitioners to pursue strategies that could help sustain the growth of SMEs.

Signaling Theory
Signaling theory rests on the transfer and interpretation of information at hand about a business enterprise to the capital market, and the impounding of the resulting perceptions into the terms on which finance is made available to the enterprise. In other words, flows of funds between an enterprise and the capital market are dependent on the flow of information between them. (Emery et al, 1991). For example management’s decision to make an acquisition or divest; repurchase outstanding shares; as well as decisions by outsiders like for example an institutional investor deciding to withhold a certain amount of equity or debt finance. The emerging evidence on the relevance of signaling theory to small enterprise financial management is mixed. Until recently, there has been no substantial and reliable empirical evidence that signaling theory accurately represents particular situations in SME financial management, or that it adds insights that are not provided by modern theory (Emery et al.1991).

Keasey et al(1992) writes that of the ability of small enterprises to signal their value to potential investors, only the signal of the disclosure of an earnings forecast were found to be positively and significantly related to enterprise value amongst the following: percentage of equity retained by owners, the net proceeds raised by an equity issue, the choice of financial advisor to an issue (presuming that a more reputable accountant, banker or auditor may cause greater faith to be placed in the prospectus for the float), and the level of under pricing of an issue. Signaling theory is now considered to be more insightful for some aspects of small enterprise financial management than others (Emery et al 1991).

The Pecking-Order Theory or Framework (POF)
This is another financial theory, which is to be considered in relation to SMEs financial management. It is a finance theory which suggests that management prefers to finance first from retained earnings, then with debt, followed by hybrid forms of finance such as convertible loans, and last of all by using externally issued equity; with bankruptcy costs, agency costs, and information asymmetries playing little role in affecting the capital structure policy. A research study carried out by Norton (1991b) found out that 75% of the small enterprises used seemed to make financial structure decisions within a hierarchical or pecking order framework .Holmes et al. (1991) admitted that POF is consistent with small business sectors because they are owner-managed and do not want to dilute their ownership. Owner-managed businesses usually prefer retained profits because they want to maintain the control of assets and business operations.

This is not strange considering the fact that in Ghana, according to empirical evidence, SMEs funding is made up of about 86% of own equity as well as loans from family and friends(See Table 1). Losing this money is like losing one’s own reputation which is considered very serious customarily in Ghana.

Access to capital
The 1971 Bolton report on small firms outlined issues underlying the concept of ‘finance gap’ (this has two components-knowledge gap-debt is restricted due to lack of awareness of appropriate sources, advantages and disadvantages of finance; and supply gap-unavailability of funds or cost of debt to small enterprises exceeds the cost of debt for larger enterprises.) that: there are a set of difficulties which face a small company. Small companies are hit harder by taxation, face higher investigation costs for loans, are generally less well informed of sources of finance and are less able to satisfy loan requirements. Small firms have limited access to the capital and money markets and therefore suffer from chronic undercapitalization. As a result; they are likely to have excessive recourse to expensive funds which act as a brake on their economic development.

This is the term used to describe the converse of gearing which is the proportion of total assets financed by equity and may be called equity to assets ratio. The studies under review in this section on leverage are focused on total debt as a percentage of equity or total assets. There are however, some studies on the relative proportions of different types of debt held by small and large enterprises.

Equity Funds
Equity is also known as owners’ equity, capital, or net worth.
Costand et al (1990) suggests that ‘larger firms will use greater levels of debt financing than small firms. This implies that larger firms will rely relatively less on equity financing than do smaller firms.’ According to the pecking order framework, the small enterprises have two problems when it comes to equity funding [McMahon et al. (1993, pp153)]:

1) Small enterprises usually do not have the option of issuing additional equity to the public.
2) Owner-managers are strongly averse to any dilution of their ownership interest and control. This way they are unlike the managers of large concerns who usually have only a limited degree of control and limited, if any, ownership interest, and are therefore prepared to recognise a broader range of funding options.

Financial Management in SME
With high spate of financial problems contributing to the high rate of failures in small medium enterprises, what do the literature on small business say on financial management in small businesses to combat such failures?
Osteryoung et al (1997) writes that “while financial management is a critical element of the management of a business as a whole, within this function the management of its assets is perhaps the most important. In the long term, the purchase of assets directs the course that the business will take during the life of these assets, but the business will never see the long term if it cannot plan an appropriate policy to effectively manage its working capital.” In effect the poor financial management of owner-managers or lack of financial management altogether is the main cause underlying the problems in SME financial management.

Hall and Young(1991) in a study in the UK of 3 samples of 100 small enterprises that were subject to involuntary liquidation in 1973,1978,and 1983 found out that the reasons given for failure,49.8% were of financial nature. On the perceptions of official receivers interviewed for the same small enterprises, 86.6% of the 247 reasons given were of a financial nature. The positive correlation between poor or nil financial management (including basic accounting) and business failure has well been documented in western countries according to Peacock (1985a).

It is gainsaying the fact that despite the need to manage every aspect of their small enterprises with very little internal and external support, it is often the case that owner-managers only have experience or training in some functional areas.

There is a school of thought that believes “a well-run business enterprise should be as unconscious of its finances as healthy a fit person is of his or her breathing”. It must be possible to undertake production, marketing, distribution and the like, without repeatedly causing, or being hindered by, financial pressures and strains. It does not mean, however, that financial management can be ignored by a small enterprise owner-manager; or as is often done, given to an accountant to take care of. Whether it is obvious or not to the casual observer, in prosperous small enterprises the owner-managers themselves have a firm grasp of the principles of financial management and are actively involved in applying them to their own situation.” McMahon et al. (1993).

Some researchers tried to predict small enterprise failure to mitigate the collapse of small businesses. McNamara et al (1988) developed a model to predict small enterprise failures giving the following four reasons:

- To enable management to respond quickly to changing conditions
- To train lenders in recognising the important factors involved in determining an enterprise’s likelihood of failing
- To assist lending organisations in their marketing by identifying their customer’s financial needs more effectively
- To act as a filter in the credit evaluation process.

They went on to argue that small enterprises are very different from large ones in the area of borrowing by small enterprises, lack of long-term debt finance and different taxation provisions.

For small private companies, these measures are unreliable and textbook methods for judging investment opportunities are not always useful in organisations that are privately owned to give a true and fair view of events taking place in the company.

The Finer Points of Internet Auctions


Penny auctions have exploded in popularity with the massive growth of the internet. However, few people know the true origins of penny auctions.Beginnings actually stretch back to the Great Depression. Those were hard times for everyone, but even harder for farmers. Farmers struggled to bring in steady income because of droughts and crops not selling as well as they had previously. As a result, the banks would foreclose on the farmers who couldn’t keep up with their mortgage payments.

The banks weren’t satisfied with just repossessing the house, they wanted to raise as much capital as possible, so they resorted to selling off the possessions of the owners of the repossessed houses. There was not much the farmers could do about it so they began bidding ridiculously low prices, pennies, on the items while threatening others who dared to bid higher than a few pennies.

The auctions of today hardly resemble their tremulous beginnings. Being part of a penny auction today is exhilarating, fun, and addictive. It combines the selling format of auctioning with a little bit of chance factored in.Auctions are a game of strategy but also a game of luck.

The premise behind penny auctions is giving people the chance to win an item at a drastically reduced price.Auctions make that possible by spreading out the cost of the product among multiple bidders. In order for a person to take part in an auction, they must pay a set price for each bid. For example, if a person wanted to bid on a fifty dollar Amazon gift card then he would spend a dollar for each time a bid placed. If he ended up winning the gift card, then he would only have spent a few dollars for a fifty dollar gift card. Usually penny auctions sell bids in packages.


The main foundation of penny auctions is the pay-per-bid format. It is the key that allows bidders to win items at the fraction of their retail value and allows the auction owners to keep their site profitable. Most y auction sites run on the same premise: people pay a set amount for each bid, whenever a person places a bid within the closing seconds of the auction time will be added, the last person left with a unique bid after the clocks runs out will win the item. There are a large variety of items that can be won, but they tend to be popular electronics or gift cards to popular stores.

There are two types of auctions: lowest unique bid auction and highest unique bid auction. Lowest unique auction sounds confusing but it is actually quite simple. A unique bid is when only one person has a bid at a certain price. Bids usually start at one penny, a bidder can then place a bid at two pennies. Until another bidder places a higher bid, the most recent bidder will be the lowest unique bid because that was the only bid at two cents and nobody bid higher. However, penny auctions generally don’t stop at one penny. It is not uncommon to find auctions that end up at a couple hundred dollars based on the popularity of the item being auctioned. However, the same principles apply for those auctions. Highest unique bid auctions follow the more traditional auction format such as eBay. The person with the highest bid at the end of the auction wins the item.

Auction site owners turn a profit by selling bids. Say twenty people are bidding on a ten dollar gift card at one dollar per bid, at the end of the auction if there were twenty bids placed in total then the site owner would have made twenty dollars with a ten dollar profit.Auctions do seem like a win-win situation:The site owner makes money while the bidder gets an item for dirt cheap. However, not everyone wins in penny auctions. The people who paid one dollar each bid but left with nothing to show for their investments will not be so happy.


Penny auction has a lot of chance mixed into it, but one can incorporate strategy that will help raise the chances of winning. Playing smart can make all the difference between gambling and auctioning.

The first crucial tip to winning penny auctions is to know how to manage your bids. Your goal should be to win as much as possible without spending a ton of money buying bids. Managing your bids means that you should already know how much you are willing to risk in order to win an item. The amount of capital you are willing to risk will determine how many bids you can use. Once you know how many bids you have to spend on an item, then you will be better able to manage how and when you place a bid. That will keep you from blowing away all of your bids in the first few seconds of the auction.

The next tip is to practice time management. When fighting in the trenches of penny auctions, you have two enemies: other bidders and time. Knowing when to bid is a must if you want to have success. Placing a bid when there is a lot of time left on the clock is never a good idea. You have to remember that the key to winning a penny auction is being the last one standing when the clock runs out and that each bid increases the amount of time left. It would be a good practice to wait until the last few minutes of the auction before you begin to bid.

The final tip for successful auctioning is to keep your emotions under control.Auctions have a lot of similarities to gambling, and just like gambling, your spending can get out of control. If you keep your emotions level, it will keep you from making rash decisions and blowing loads of cash. Keep your mind clear so that you can gage the behavior of the other bidders and outsmart them.


Penny auctions are a great addition to the web whether you want to win an item that otherwise you wouldn’t be able to afford or if you simply enjoy the thrill that comes with bidding in auctions. Unfortunately, scam sites have tarnished the reputation of the legitimate penny auction sites. However, there are ways that you can protect yourself from scamers and enjoy your auctioning without having to worry about losing your money due to dishonesty.

Checking the reputation of the auction site before you start spending your hard earned money is always a good idea. Chances are other people have tried the site before you and some of them have left reviews. The reviews are your way to gage whether a auction site is trustworthy or not. If a site is getting overwhelmingly negative reviews, then that is a clear indication that you should steer your business elsewhere.

Another tool you can use to protect yourself is checking the Alexia ranks of the auction sites. Alexia rank will give a solid view of how much traffic the auction is getting. If you see a huge difference in the amount of traffic Alexia is projecting and the amount of active bidders on the site, then warning signals should be ringing in your head. Some auction sites have been known to set up robots that automatically bid on projects in order to keep the auction going and inflate the price. That is known as shill bidding. You can sniff out those sites by comparing the traffic the site should be getting to the amount of users using this site.


New legislation may come out later down the road that will officially make penny auctions gambling, but until then, it is a fun, exciting auction that allows one to win the item they’ve always wanted but couldn’t afford.Auctions are also quite lucrative for the site owners because of the pay-per-bid strategy they’ve incorporated. Penny auctions had humble beginnings with farmers who just wanted to get back at the banks who kicked them out of their house. More recently, auctions have enjoyed an explosion in popularity with the rise of the internet.

There are two main formats fora auctions, lowest and highest unique auction, however they both run on the same premise where the last unique bid wins the item. Winning a penny auction will require a certain amount of mental tactic and a bit of luck. However, you can increase your odds of winning by practicing certain techniques such as managing your bids wisely, learning how to work with the time, and keeping a level head and your emotions under control. When you combine those three strategies to your bidding plan, you will find that you win a lot more often.

It is important that you do your due diligence to protect yourself when participating in auctions. Not every auction is run by honest and trustworthy people. There are people out there who just want to take your money. You can protect yourself by ensuring that you only bid on sites that already have a very positive reputation from real users.

How to Find Great Live Auctions for Resale Items

Hi, my name is Walt. I’m an auctioneer with 25 years of experience in the auction business and licensed in the state of MA. I own Quick Auction Service, a company that specializes in building and running custom auctions, I’m also the webmaster of my own site and have been on eBay for 8 years. Besides eBay, the types of auctions I run most frequently are antiques and on-site estate auctions, although I’ve run everything from business overstock auctions to charity & special event auctions.

I enjoy sharing my knowledge and stories of the auction business. My goal for article is to help folks get the absolute most out of their auction experience.

Whether your fresh out of the package or a seasoned dealer I think I can offer something in this article to help you with your auciton adventures.

There may be as many reasons to attend auctions as there are types of auctions to attend. Maybe you want to attend an auction to buy items for re-sale on eBay, or some other market. Maybe you want to furnish your home with wonderful antiques, or you want to furnish your home as inexpensively without sacrificing quality.Some folks are just looking for a fun night out. With a little perseverance all these things are possible.

There are antiques and estate auctions, auto auctions, overstock auctions, absolute and no reserve auctions, real estate auctions, specialty auctions where only one genre of items are sold, tailgate auctions, live auctions, online auctions, sealed bid auctions, silent auctions, charity and fund raising auctions and many more.

Can you really buy for pennies on the dollar at an auction? You bet! Many times I’ve seen folks buy and re-sell at the same auction on the same night for a good profit, although be advised, this should only be done after the auction is over.

There are a lot of ways to find an auction, but here are some tips on how to find and attend the best ones.

Visit the genre of shops in the area that apply to the type of auction you want to attend. IE: If your looking for a good antique auction to attend, stop in the local antiques shops and ask for what there are for good auctions in the area. Sounds obvious right? But listen to what they don’t say as well as what they do say. Oftentimes when a dealer speaks poorly about an auction he or she attends, it may be likely that they are trying to keep a good thing secret. Think for a moment, why would a dealer keep attending a lousy auction?

Newspaper ads: I personally like to find ads in the classified ad section rather than flashy display ads. Flashy ads are usually indicative of an auction that will be high priced, may have reserves, (a set price on an item), and usually an enormous crowd. While any auction can be profitable to attend, it is usually best to steer clear of the glitzy ones, at least for the beginner.

Here’s the minimum you want to find out before you go. If there is a phone number in the ad, call and ask for the terms of the sale. What forms of payment do they accept? Is it an absolute auction? An absolute auction is one that has no minimum or reserve bids on items. These are the best auctions to attend! Is there a buyers premium? A buyers premium is like a tax that everyone who makes purchases at that auction must pay above the winning bid price. Most auctions these days do charge a buyers premium, 10% is not unreasonable but I feel much more than that is greedy, and the auctioneer that charges over 10% is counting on most bidders not doing the extra math as the bids quicken in pace.

A fair auction will have ample time to inspect the merchandise, usually at least 2 or 3 hours. Find out when inspection starts and make sure to attend! Never attend an auction if you can’t make the inspection, not unless your prepared to gamble. Most auctioneers sell at a rate of about 100 items per hour, which is why they sell “as is”. They simply don’t have the time to give a detailed description of all the items. Since almost all items at auction are sold AS IS, there are sure to be some damaged, refinished, fake and incomplete items at any given auction. Beware of any auctions that offer very little or no inspection time.

Good auctions will usually have 150 to 400 lots. A lot may be one item or a group of items. The exception to this are specialty auctions, auto auctions, real estate auctions etc.

When you attend your first sale, take note of the 1/2 dozen or so dealers that buy the most often. See if you can find out about other area auctions they attend.

When you do find an excellent auction, attend it as often as possible. By frequenting good sales, you help increase the bottom line of that business. It’s difficult for many auctioneers to keep the quality of merchandise consistent, so good attendance certainly helps. And when an auctioneer gets to know you as a buyer, he/she will go out of the way to accommodate you, to keep you coming back.

Hiring An Auction Company

Estimating your assets value:

Typically, one of the first questions a business owner will ask me is, “how much will the assets bring at an auction”. After taking the time to review the assets, the auctioneer should give the client a conservative estimate of the sale based upon his experience and the current market trends. It is important that the company give realistic expectations so the seller can make informed decisions based on their best interest.

Compensation and Expenses:

Is the company you are considering working for you or against you? The agreement you decide may determine this.

A business owner should carefully consider how the auction company is compensated. The most common commission structures include: straight commission, outright purchase of assets, guaranteed base with a split above to both auctioneer and seller, guaranteed base with anything above going to auctioneer or a flat fee structure.

In a straight commission structure, the company is paid an agreed upon percentage of the total sale.

In an outright purchase agreement, the auctioneer simply becomes your end buyer. The company purchases your assets and relocates them. While this can be an option in some unique situations, keep in mind that they will want to purchase your assets at a very reduced price to make a profit at a later date.

In a minimum base guarantee, the auction company guarantees the seller that the auction will generate a minimum amount of sales. Anything above that amount either goes to the auction company or split with the seller. While a seller might feel more comfortable doing an auction knowing that he is guaranteed a minimum amount for his sale, keep in mind that it is the best interest of the auction company to secure a minimum base price as low as possible in order reduce their financial liability to the seller and secure higher compensation for the sale.

In a flat fee structure, the auctioneer agrees to show up for the sale and call the auction. There is no incentive for the auctioneer to get the best prices for your assets. The auction company is compensated regardless of the outcome of your sale.

What is the best option for business owners? In my experience, an agreed upon straight commission structure. This puts the responsibility on the auction company to offer the best outcome for everyone involved. There is an incentive for the auction company to work hard for both parties, set up and run a professional sale, get the highest bid and sell every item on the inventory. Successful auctions translate to a higher bottom line for both the seller and the auction company.

Auction Expenses:

In most auction agreements the expenses to conduct an auction are passed to the seller. If the auction company pays for the expenses, it is simply absorbed in higher commission rates.

All expenses should be agreed upon in advance in a written contract. Typical expenses will include the costs of advertising, labor, legal fees, travel, equipment rentals, security, postage and printing. A reputable auction company will be able to estimate all expenses based upon their experience in previous auctions. An agreement should be actual costs charged as expenses, not an estimated amount.

Advertising is typically the highest cost in conducting an auction. The auction company needs to set up an advertising campaign that will promote the sale to its best advantage and not overspend to simply advertise the auction company.

Once the auction is complete, the auction company should provide a complete breakdown of all expenses to the seller, including copies of receipts within the auction summary report.

Buyer’s Premium:

What is a buyer’s premium? If you attend auctions regularly, you are very familiar with this term. The auction company charges a fee to the buyer when they buy an item at auction.

The buyer’s premium has been around since the 1980′s and is standard auction practice. It was first used by auction houses to help offset costs of running brick and mortar permanent auction facilities. Since then, it has spread to all aspects of the auction industry. It is prominent in online auctions and allows auction companies to cover added expenses incurred from online sales.

It is the responsibility of the auction company to provide clear disclosure of the buyer’s premium to both the buyers and the sellers. Those not familiar with auctions are often taken back by the buyer’s premium. They looked upon it as an under handed way for the auction company to make more money. Reputable auction companies will provide full disclosure within the auction contract, advertisement and bidder registration.

Typically, an auction company will charge online buyers a higher buyer’s premium percentage than those attending an auction in person. Extra fees are incurred with online bidding and are charged accordingly to online buyers. This provides the seller a level playing field for both online buyers and those attending the auction in person. Without the buyer’s premium, there is no way to do this.


We’ve all been there. We’re looking forward to attending an auction only to find that some items were sold prior to the auction date.

As an auctioneer with over thirty-six years of experience, I can honestly state that pre-sales will hurt an auction. When a company decides to liquidate their assets, it is easy to sell off high-end pieces of equipment through online sources, equipment vendors or to other businesses. The seller receives instant cash and avoids paying a commission to an auction company.

Auctioneer’s find themselves appearing to acting in a self-serving capacity when potential clients say they are planning to sell off parts of their inventory prior to an auction. It’s hard not to consider the auctioneer’s commission when they warn you not to pre-sell anything. Yes, the auctioneer wants to earn a commission on those sales but it is more important that the auctioneer protect the sale from potential negative backlash that comes from pre-selling. The buying public knows when an auction has been “cherry picked” prior to the sale and it reflects in their bidding. It becomes a sale of “leftovers” and that impacts prices.

A buyer who purchases prior to the auction usually does not attend the sale. They already bought equipment at a good price with no competition. If they do attend the auction, they tend to let others know of their great pre-sale purchases which again, impacts prices and the overall excitement of the sale.

It is important to understand that auctions work best with a complete inventory. You want competition on your higher end equipment. The easy to sell items make it possible to gain respectable prices for hard to sell items.

When a business owner decides to liquidate their equipment assets, there is only one opportunity to do it right. Hiring a reputable auction company will assist you with a professional, orderly and timely liquidation.

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